Wednesday, December 13, 2017

by Nancy Tartaglione
December 13, 2017 2:43pm

The Oscars shortlist for Best Foreign Language Film will be announced later this week, revealing the nine titles that will vie for the ultimate five nomination slots. As with each year, there are dozens of distinct submissions from a host of countries — 92 this time around — with new voices and repeat filmmakers in the mix. The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences’ Phase One and Executive Committees, which weed out the lead crop, have been unpredictable in the past and we’ll know for certain what’s made the cut in short fashion.

In the meantime, below is my annual look inside the films which appear to be the strongest contenders. I spoke with the directors of each picture about their inspirations and more. The Golden Globes announced its nominations earlier this week and those movies are all here, as are others that have a shortlist shot and/or are worth bearing in mind once the dust settles. The titles below are in no particular order.

FIRST THEY KILLED MY FATHER (Cambodia); Director: Angelina Jolie; U.S. Distributor: Netflix
On Monday, Angelina Jolie scored her second nomination in the Golden Globes Foreign Language category with First They Killed My Father, the drama about author and human rights activist Loung Ung’s life under the rule of the deadly Khmer Rouge. Jolie holds dual U.S./Cambodian citizenship, and shot the film in Khmer. She says she didn’t see it so much as a challenge, but “something that was essential to the expression and soul of the film. This is their history, and their language. I’m thrilled the film has been able to reach audiences around the world but it was made first and foremost for and with people in Cambodia.”
I asked her if, given the subject matter, it was difficult to shoot in the country and she told me the biggest consideration “was that we were shooting in some cases on the very land where people had been killed, with a cast and crew made up of survivors and children of survivors. Taking the time to discuss scenes, to prepare people for what was going to happen and to hear their views, and making time and space for people to pray together, was so important. These discussions shaped our days on set and made the experience moving and meaningful.”
The film has also been hailed as a technical achievement for the local industry. Says Jolie, “It was clear we would be building an infrastructure while making the film. While it is not necessarily easy, it unifies the crew in a very unique way. What we didn’t have we made. I’ve never had the experience of a crew as invested and so willing to learn from each other and work together to find a solution.” Are there other Cambodian films in her future? “My focus now will be continuing to support other filmmakers in Cambodia telling Cambodian stories. I will of course continue to find ways to participate however I can,” she says.

You’re introducing First They Killed My Father, which you shot for director Angelina Jolie. Can you talk about how you got onto the project?
I was about to embark on a Michael Winterbottom film about Russ Meyer — a comedy with Will Ferrell — and I was so, so looking forward to doing it. But the production fell apart two, three weeks before I was officially due to start. I was quite shocked when it collapsed. I knew it so well; I was reconnoitering it in downtown Los Angeles with Michael — it was such a fun project.
Angelina knew Michael and knew I was attached to his film. When I flew back home to Copenhagen, she and [producer] Mike Vieira called. We talked for about 45 minutes, mostly about the concept of a subjective camera and how we were going to achieve it.
If I had three months or three years to think about it, I would never had said no to this film. I met the crew, asked them if they wanted to carry on. I said I wanted to make the same film as Angelina. If they wanted to do that, then the film is more important than our egos.
I very quickly brought a few people in to help me. I brought a camera builder in from Sweden who has worked with me on many, many films. He was my teacher from 30 years ago, a close friend and a brilliant engineer. He could work [on location] in the rice paddies with the welder and fix things.

First They Killed My Father is told from the point-of-view of 7-year-old Loung Ung, played by Sreymoch Sareum. Can you talk about your approach to her as a character and how her perspective of the story suggested your visual approach? 
The film is, as much as we could get, this young girl witnessing what goes on around her. That’s easy to sort of equate in your head — but then, from that, to doing it is something else. It’s not just about POV, because a POV is many things. A child will look at the face of an opposing actor, but she might for no apparent reason and for no intellectual reason, just because she’s a child, just wander off and get distracted by a flower or dancing light or butterflies. So it's the speed with which her glance moves from one thing to another, it’s why she moves from the more obvious POV.
We had Steadicam, and a strong Steadicam shooter. But I needed something between handheld and Steadicam. Not shakiness, but an agility, and a lightness. Which is actually why I’ve gone smaller — using smaller rigs — and why I’ve shot multiple formats from time to time. Because at least I know I can get that agility. [Due to Netflix delivery requirements, this project was shot in 4K, using a combination of Sony CineAlta PMW-F55 cameras and Panavision Primo, Leica Summicron-C and Angenieux Optimo lenses.]
Then it became very clear that we had to always shoot her first. We created a kind of space or a form where the actors should work. We gave them guidelines. Sreymoch was very talented, very composed. We did allow her to just move where she wanted to go. Which took me back to my acceptance of freedom, independence and limitation of documentary work. I just had to try to let things go. I did it in Slumdog. You try to control, but you cannot control everything.

These are long takes through complicated sets and action.
Well the only way forward with my three days’ prep was to say, let’s build on her experience, let’s watch her experience, let’s start the day with the biggest scene. As long as you know emotionally what you’re doing, as long as you know you have enough experience about what she will do, then you can go with a long lens, sometimes double shoot, sometimes track and move. So, it’s not Steadicam all the time.

You go to overhead shots several times. How did that decision come about?
I remember showing Angelina some highly magnified photographs of the DNA of tears, which I found on the net. They looked like a mixture of artwork and satellite imagery. The wonderful thing about Angelina, she has an artistic gene. She was always open to debate about color, about light, about shadow, always opens, even under stress.
I showed her these pictures of tears. And then we started talking about satellite pictures, from above, from God’s point of view. I guess out of that, the tear landscapes and God’s point of view became the drone shots. So I heaved a drone team in from Thailand. It was not so much about movement — there are very few moments where the drone actually moves — but looking down at these subjects and asking why is this happening.

A few times during the story Loung has flashbacks to her earlier life.
There’s a yearning. After we’d gone pretty well into the film, to the point where she is experiencing hunger, there is a scene where they’re talking about what they miss the most [about their previous life]. It’s before the father is taken away, at night. At that time, in that scene, it’s yearning. We go into her face and she’s in her old clothes and we’re back in her flat.
We decided to shoot it differently, to have it half back in the flat, so you see the food with pinks and yellows and cyans, a boar’s head, all the things that she dreamed of — overcolored, like surreal, enhanced, saturated colors.
And then I felt there was something slightly wrong about that. Angelina and I chatted about it. We decided to put in the fencing of the hut [in the Khmer Rouge labor camp] into the picture. So you're halfway back in the home, but there's also the fencing of the prison hut in the frame.

Did you use visual effects for that?
I built the bloody fencing in the flat in this ridiculous location in Battambang. Not me, but Tom Brown, the production designer — he lugged the fencing and we built it and I lit it. I dimmed the light so I could move the color temperature from colorful to cold, and then there’s a [Khmer Rouge] guard walking by. It just got more and more complicated. I was tracking round this flat that I think Angelina has purchased — a very nice flat that had seen better days. That’s where we shot their home.
But that’s the yearning. The color — because she’s been more and more deprived [in the camp]. The deprivation factor starts at the first roadblock, where she sees her mother’s red dress. This young soldier just takes it and holds it up and throws it into the bag.
Again, Angelina’s casting. That young actor who plays a Khmer Rouge soldier, at this stage of the fight he’s an example of what they believe in. Which is why this film is extremely important today. Whether we talk about ISIS or we talk about European children, if there's one thing we unanimously links cultures, it’s how we treat children. Because if you don’t treat your children properly, if you don’t do the best you can with your children and others, they will lose their way, and, if worse comes to worst, they’re going to turn on you.

But the film takes pains not to blame the child soldiers.
It’s our fault. It’s still our fault. And it seems always to be our fault. It can be rectified. There is hope.

When you’re shooting difficult scenes with child actors, how do you divorce yourself from the emotions they are showing?
Easily, and for most cinematographers I think I’d say the same. We're so damn busy. We’re busy physically, doing what we have to do, mentally thinking at the same time about what we’re doing and why, continually questioning our activities. And there’s the social engineering. My antenna’s out to the sound, to the lights, to the actors, to what else is going on in the background, because I may see something else more interesting I always shoot with both eyes open.
I remember my Polish teacher at film school saying, “You sit there with your eye in the eyepiece but your left eye’s going around and around, I’ve never seen that before.” That comes from my background as a still photographer. I always used rangefinder cameras — a Leica — so I could shoot with both eyes open.
do get emotionally involved; I can give you many examples. I even get touched at grading. When I was grading First They Killed my Father frame-by-frame in London, I found myself as I was in this high-speed technical environment getting goose bumps, particularly around the scene at the end. I said to myself, “This has got to be good — otherwise why am I getting emotionally involved like this?”
Oddly, I found that more so happening in the grading than when I was physically on location shooting in Cambodia in 120°F, 100 percent humidity. I’ve done some pretty wacky films — I shot 127 Hours in a slot canyon and Slumdog was high-speed chasing through feces-ridden slums. I was just on Kursk with [director] Thomas Vinterberg, where I was working with the camera underwater for hours and hours every day — I lost 11 stone, 11 kilos.

That can't be good for you.
I’m like De Niro and method acting. But this film was so tough. There was one day when 12 people went down due to exhaustion and heat. It was that tough.

A Netflix production, First They Killed My Father is the official Cambodian entry in the 2017 Academy Awards for Best Foreign Language Film.

Angelina Jolie, foreign language motion picture (“First They Killed My Father”) and animated motion picture (“The Breadwinner”): I’m sincerely moved and overwhelmed by the foreign language film nomination. I’m grateful to the HFPA for acknowledging our film.

Loung Ung, foreign language motion picture (“First They Killed My Father”): In the Khmer Rouge genocide, an estimated 90 percent of artists were killed. Now, almost 40 years later, a new generation of artists came together to make this film in Cambodia.
I am so proud of them all, and honored to be part of it alongside everyone who brought their talents, love and compassion to the set every day. Awkoon (thank you very much in Khmer).

Judi Dench, actress, motion picture-musical or comedy (“Victoria and Abdul”): The Golden Globes, hooray! What wonderful news on such a snowy day in London.

Meryl Streep, actress, motion picture-drama (“The Post”): I’m thrilled for the movie, for Steven (Spielberg) and Tom (Hanks), and for the incredible ensemble of actors who made this movie need its moment in history.

Did you have any idea that the Weinstein reporting would open the floodgates on other stories of powerful media figures engaging in sexual abuse?
Kantor: It’s counterintuitive. One of our editors said to us, “You know he’s not that famous.” It was true, because Weinstein was Hollywood famous, but he wasn’t a household name. One of our editors, Matt Purdy, has an interesting theory, which is that this was the rare situation in which the accusers were more famous than the accused.
I’m of two minds about the potency of fame in making this story impactful. On one hand, I kind of resist and resent it, because I believe every woman’s story counts. Harvey Weinstein appears to have done the same thing to a lot of women regardless of their stature in the industry. As a journalist and as a human being, I don’t like the idea of weighting the more famous women’s stories more heavily than the lesser-known women’s stories. That said, I have to concede that the impact of big stars like Ashley Judd, Angelina Jolie and Gwyneth Paltrow going on the record was enormous, in part because they were saying it’s not shameful to tell your story. I ask myself would it have played out the same way if the really famous women had not come forward? I’m not sure it would have.

Tuesday, December 12, 2017

Monday, December 11, 2017

Sunday, December 10, 2017


At the Rose Bowl Flea Market on Sunday (December 10) in Pasadena, Calif. with Shiloh, Knox and Vivienne.


SPOTLIGHT December, 2017: Angelina Jolie, Humanitarian Filmmaker

Posted by on Dec 1, 2017

With award season already in full thrust, SPOTLIGHT asks: Has there ever been an A-list actress who has – in the prime of her career – choosen to promote not herself, but two films that tell stories about third world countries?
The actress doesn’t even play a role in either film, but opts instead to produce The Breadwinner, an animated story about a young Afghan girl who dresses as a boy in order to feed her family in Taliban-controlled Afghanistan, and to direct First They Killed My Father, an unflinching child’s view on the Khmer Rouge’s deadly rule in Cambodia.
No prizes for guessing December’s SPOTLIGHT is on Angelina Jolie, humanitarian, filmmaker, activist, mother, actress and so much more. And, both of her 2017 films have been selected as AWFJ Movie of the Week for their date of release.
As a BAFTA and AWFJ voter, this journalist enjoys award season as much as the next, although – if we’re totally honest – it’s something of a self-serving enterprise. Pick me! Pick me!
Which is what makes Jolie’s humility all the more admirable.
When AWFJ met with Jolie at Toronto International Film Festival 2017, she tirelessly walked the red carpets accompanied by her six children, using her own celebrity to promote otherwise overlooked issues.
Dressed head to toe in white maxi skirt and white buttoned shirt, she looked like an angel as she reflected on her career, surprised as anyone to note that she’s been an actress for 35 years now, making her screen debut opposite her father Jon Voight in Lookin’ to Get Out, at age seven.
Jacqueline Bisset and Maximillian Schell were her godparents and a Hollywood career was preordained.
“I grew up around film in a town where it was all anybody talked about. My mother always told me how she wanted to be an actress and how her grandmother wanted to be an actress, and she was just so excited that I would be an actress that I never really thought I could be anything else,” noted Jolie, 42, whose beloved mother Marcheline Bertrand died ten years ago of ovarian cancer, at age 56.
“I got into acting partially because of my mom, because it made her so happy. It was something I was very much doing for her and it changed a little when she passed away.”

It’s of note that she only really began her odyssey as a director in the same year her mother died, first with the 2007 documentary A Place in Time, followed by the 2011 Bosnian drama In The Land of Milk and Honey, gaining momentum with 2014’s WW II epic, Unbroken.
A year later she directed, wrote and starred opposite husband Brad Pitt in By The Sea, a drama about a husband and wife whose marriage is unraveling. While the poorly received film would become a self-fulfilling prophecy – the couple’s 12-year relationship unraveling over claims of his drinking and abuse – today their year-long separation is on hold.
“I haven’t done much [on screen] since my mother passed although now I do it for my kids,” said the mother of Maddox, 16, Pax, 13, Zahara, 12, Shiloh, 11, and nine-year-old twins Knox and Vivienne.
If she’s happier behind the camera instead of in front, then she’s not ungrateful for the opportunities her career has presented, “It is fun and silly, putting on costumes and acting like a crazy person. It’s a great job.”

Although she trained at the Strasbourg Institute she looks to life for inspiration. “Have a very full life, as full as possible, and listen and be aware of what’s around you. If you do that in life, you’re a better person, and if you do that as an actor, you communicate more honestly.”
She may have told the New York Times that she never expects “to be the one that everybody understands or likes,” but the peculiar disconnect between Jolie as a person and her perceived wild image, has long time been evident.
Even as she begun receiving praise for 1999’s Girl, Interrupted, her Oscar-winning role as a patient in a mental health institution, she laughs recalling how one critic wrote, “the only reason she would win an Oscar is that people aren’t sure if she’s actually crazy.”

Time has proven her gentle, kind and selfless. If you have to be a little crazy to take on and achieve as much as she has done, then call her crazy.
A cofounder of the Preventing Sexual Violence in Conflict Initiative, five years ago she was anointed as Special Envoy to the UN High Commissioner for Refugees, undertaking more than 60 missions to date, often accompanied by her family.
Then there’s her advocacy for womens’ health and frank discussion of her own double mastectomy, all the time raising six children.
Having interviewed Jolie at least five times over the past decade, I’ve always found her to be smart, gracious and kind. She doesn’t even have a personal publicist and the first words out of her mouth are usually, “Ask me whatever you want.” Manna to any journalist’s ears.
Oddly enough, early success did not bring happiness. “I actually got very depressed. I was young and I loved to be with people and this was going to change things. I was also very aware that I didn’t have much to say and I didn’t deserve a microphone. I was still trying to figure out who I was. I was certainly no different than anybody else and I didn’t want to be on the other side of the line, so it felt wrong.”
The same year as Girl, Interrupted, she starred in The Bone Collector with Denzel Washington and Pushing Tin, demonstrating the rage of her talents.
Ironically it was her flashy role in the blockbuster Lara Croft: Tomb Raider the following year that changed her life. While filming in Cambodia, she happened upon Loung Ung’s bestselling memoir, First They Killed My Father. At the same time, she fell in love with the Cambodian people and adopted her first child, Maddox, from a local orphanage.
Loung Ung was five when the Khmer Rouge overthrew Lon Nol’s military rule in 1975, turning the once-prosperous former French colonial outpost into an isolated death chambe
Seeking out Ung shortly after reading her book, the two women became instant friends, adapting the book into a screenplay many years before Netflix agreed to finance the project in 2015. Cambodian director Rithy Panh signed on as a producer. When a damning Vanity Fair article suggested that Jolie had manipulated Cambodian children during auditions for the film, Panh supported Jolie, saying how she is beloved by the Cambodian people.
“For the longest time, I never thought I could make a movie,” Jolie said, “Not ever. And I never thought I could write. It wasn’t part of my plan.”
Describing her decision to become a filmmaker as an accident, she now says, “I wanted to learn more about the war in Yugoslavia because it was a war I did not understand. I wasn’t planning on making a movie at all but I was sick for a few days so I was away from my kids, so I thought I’d try to write a screenplay – just for me, for fun, nobody would ever see it. I decided to start with two people who loved each other deeply and then end with one of them killing the other.”
That of course, would be In The Land of Milk and Honey.
“If you saw me in the days before making that film; my lack of faith in myself, I was a mess.”
Today she is infinitely more at ease although First They Killed My Father was not without its difficulties. “It wasn’t easy, standing there with your friend while you recreate scenes of her father being taken and killed.”
With her son Maddox working long hours, serving as an executive producer, she says. “I wanted him to work hard and give himself back to his country.”
A champion of women’s rights for all, Jolie instantly signed on to co-produce The Breadwinner, writing in Harpers Bazaar about the inequality of a word where millions of women and girls – such as the 11-year-old girl portrayed in the film – have to go to work instead of school to support their families.

As much as she is passionate about film, it’s her humanitarian work which brings the greatest satisfaction. “The people who I’ve met over the years are truly my heroes. These are people who have taught me how to be a better mother and a better person; how to appreciate life and what to value and what to live by. I’d rather remain in that world and learn from them and if I can do films that bring their stories to life, then I think that’s important.”

Thanks Pride&Joy

Ending gender-based violence is a vital issue of peace and security as well as of social justice. Nato can be a leader in this effort

All violence against women betrays the fundamental promise in the UN Charter of equal rights and dignity for women. It is one of the prime reasons why women remain in a subordinate position in relation to men in most parts of the world.

When this violence is committed as an act of war it tears apart families, creates mass displacement, and makes peace and reconciliation far harder to achieve. In fact, it is often designed expressly to achieve those goals as part of a military strategy.
Despite being prohibited by international law, sexual violence continues to be employed as a tactic of war in numerous conflicts from Myanmar to Ukraine and Syria to Somalia. It includes mass rape, gang rape, sexual slavery, and rape as a form of torture, ethnic cleansing and terrorism. It accounts in large part for why it is often more dangerous to be a woman in a warzone today than it is to be a soldier.
In our different roles we have seen how conflicts in which women’s bodies and rights are systematically abused last longer, cause deeper wounds and are much harder to resolve and overcome. Ending gender-based violence is therefore a vital issue of peace and security as well as of social justice.
The Nato Alliance was founded to safeguard not just the security but also the freedom of its peoples: in the words of President Harry Truman, as “a shield against aggression and the fear of aggression”. For nearly 70 years Nato has stood for collective defence against military threats. But also for the defence of democracy, individual liberty, the rule of law and the UN Charter.
We believe that Nato has the responsibility and opportunity to be a leading protector of women’s rights.
In particular, we believe Nato can become the global military leader in how to prevent and respond to sexual violence in conflict, drawing on the strengths and capabilities of its member states and working with its many partner countries.
Over the coming months we will be working together and with others to identify ways in which Nato can strengthen its contribution to women’s protection and participation in all aspects of conflict-prevention and resolution.
First, by building on Nato’s commitment to integrate gender issues into its strategic thinking as part of its values and reinforcing a culture of the integration of women throughout the organization including in leadership positions.
Nato’s senior military leaders, have a vital role to play in being positive role models, and promoting the role of women in the military.
Second, by helping to raise the standards of other militaries. Nato and Allied countries are involved every day in training partner militaries around the world. We want to explore ways in which existing training on the protection of human rights and civilians, including against sexual violence, can be strengthened.
Third, Nato has developed standard operating practices for soldiers in the field, learned through mandatory pre-deployment training. Standards and training are not the only answer, but they ensure that personnel recognize the different ways in which women and girls are affected by conflict and are trained to prevent, recognize and respond to sexual and gender-based violence.
This is a vital part of helping to create lasting cultural changes, including debunking the myths that fuel sexual violence and deepening understanding of the centrality of protection and rights for women in the creation of lasting peace and security.
Fourth, Nato already deploys gender advisers to local communities in Kosovo and Afghanistan, while Nato’s female soldiers are able to reach and engage with local communities. Stronger awareness of the role that gender plays in conflict improves military operational effectiveness and leads to improved security. Strengthening this culture can only benefit Nato’s contribution to peace and security over the long term.
Fifth, Reporting on conflict-related sexual violence is now one of the tasks of Nato commanders. Nato is also creating a reporting system to record instances of gender-based violence compatible with UN Monitoring Analysis and Reporting Arrangements.
With this data, which will be shared with the UN, Nato soldiers will be able to discern patterns and trends so that they will be able to respond more quickly to prevent potential violence. By reporting crimes and supporting work to bring perpetrators to justice, Nato can challenge the culture of impunity, including for senior leaders and those most responsible.
Nato Allies have strongly committed to put these issues front and center every day, in how they train soldiers, in how they operate in the field, and in how they interact with civilians who find themselves in combat zones.
We will also be urging more concerted action in the wider world. By working together with business, civil society, governments and political leadership writ large, international organizations such as Nato can help lead the way toward ending impunity for sexual violence in conflict.
It is humanity’s shame that violence against women, whether in peaceful societies or during times of war, has been universally regarded as a lesser crime. There is finally hope that we can change this. We owe it to ourselves – men and women alike – and to future generations.

Jens Stoltenberg is NATO Secretary General. Angelina Jolie is co-founder of the Preventing Sexual Violence in Conflict Initiative

Friday, December 8, 2017

Random Fuzzy

Notable in the Awards Chatter podcast:

-The big, oft-misquoted and misrepresented part is of course when she was asked about By The Sea:

Feinberg:  You laughed that it was pretty much right on the heels of your wedding in 2014.  It's not the way everybody chooses to have a honeymoon.
Yeah, it may not have been a good idea.

You and Brad play a couple going through a horrible time after the wife has 2 miscarriages. Was it a healthy thing to put yourself through at that point?
“It should have been good for us.  To be honest I wanted to work with him because we worked, we had met working together and we work together well.  And even though it was a challenging role, we'd matured.  And I wanted us to do some serious work together and I wanted to see him do that kind of work.  So I thought that it could be a good way for us to communicate.  And I think in some ways  it was, and in some ways we learned some things. But there was a heaviness probably during that situation that carried on and it wasn’t because of the film. (giggles) It was something that we were dealing, that you know.  Things happen for different reasons, and things, you know -- 'Why did I write that exact piece? Why did we feel the way about it we did when we made it?' I’m not sure.”

Obviously it's about grief but it's also connected in other ways.. I read you wrote it shortly after the death of your mother ... and then when you were finishing it was when, you were in the editing room and you had another health scare.  So it seems every step of the way there was something.
I don't know.  I mean my life has been, I've had many, many extraordinary, very fortunate things happen, and it's also been many different things over the years, that have been challenging.  So that wasn't a particular time just when I wrote it.  I mean, if we look at it, I had my mastectomy right before I shot Unbroken.  Over the span of that decade, I did lose my mother,  I did have my mastectomy, and I did then have an ovarian cancer scare and have that surgery as well. And other things, of course, that happen in life that you go through.
It really depends, a piece of art can be something that can be healing or it can just be difficult.  I still don’t know.  I’m happy we did that film because we did explore something together, and whatever it was, maybe it didn’t solve certain things, but it did, we did communicate something that maybe needed to be communicated to each other.


Ruben Nepales, November 06, 2015

So can you talk about that—you just had your wedding and you had to direct Brad.
"We thought, this is the best honeymoon because we felt, as the film says in the end—whatever you go through, weather the storm and stay together. It was a message to each other of we are going to weather whatever comes and we are going to stick together, so that was nice."

WSJ 2015
Julia Reed

"When something happens in your life that’s a dramatic thing, you either pull together or you go into your own,” Jolie Pitt says, referring to By the Sea and the trauma that drives a wedge between Roland and Vanessa. “So many times, people divorce very quickly. To me, if this film has a message, it’s that you have to try to weather the storm together no matter what. And that’s a beautiful thing.”

As Angelina Jolie awaits the release of 'Unbroken,' she says directing husband Brad Pitt brought them 'closer'

Her WWII survival drama, about Louis Zamperini, is set for Christmas Day; she teams up with Pitt in 'By the Sea' 

Sunday, December 21, 2014, 2:00 AM

 Jolie tells the Daily News that directing Pitt while the two made her marital crisis drama, “By the Sea" — opening next year — made her fall in love with him more.

“It brought us closer,” she says.

 “The scenes on ‘By the Sea’ were so tense that we let out (any stress) on camera. There’s really heavy fighting in it, so I think sometimes the crew felt like, ‘Mom and Dad are having a fight!’ — because Brad and I are the producers too,” she said. “Success or failure, it’s all on us.

“But it was all oddly freeing. We both wanted to do something as artists ... and push each other. So we got this opportunity to go out there and play.

“I had missed being that free as an actor, and to do that depth of work, and what a pleasure it was to do it with Brad, because I really saw him as an actor, not just the man I loved,” she says. “In the end, it was an amazing thing, because there’s no actor who wants to help me more, or push me more as an actress, or give me more as a director or writer than my husband, and there’s no man I want to see succeed more than him. We were so there for each other.”

 Though married only since August — and globe-trotting from sets around the world to homes in Los Angeles, New Orleans or France — Pitt and Jolie are dedicated to setting aside Christmas as family time, she says.

“Our tradition is, well, being somewhat traditional,” Jolie reveals, even cozily referring to herself and Pitt as “Mom and Dad” when detailing their household holiday.

“Dad is the main one to deal with the tree, Mom and the kids help decorate, and then we put all the kids to bed. And, as anybody who has a big family knows, [the gifts] take a really long time! You have to be very organized when you’re wrapping them and putting presents around the tree. And you have to make sure no one gets up and leaves before everyone else is done.

“It’s all a bit military! We’re constantly cleaning up the wrapping paper and getting coffee, like any other parent,” she says.

And like other parents, Pitt and Jolie must deal with the inevitable problem of limiting the expectations of kids who have spent all year staying nice rather than naughty.

 “We make a point not to spoil them, but there’s usually that one item they've been wanting for a long time that we’ve held back until Christmas,” she says. “They’ve each got that big thing.”


Also interesting in the Awards Chatter podcast:

- "I had this feeling that I couldn't face a first Christmas without my mother so I really wanted to be pregnant.  So during Changeling, I got pregnant with the twins."
Recall what she said about Loung in VF :  "She’s that girlfriend who rolled up her sleeves, got on a plane, and helped me on Christmas morning,”

Waking up on Christmas Day without Brad was hard for her.  Before the family left for Crested Butte, she arranged for one of the therapists to join them for a Christmas celebration so that Brad could celebrate Christmas with them, but she couldn't ask the therapist to leave her own family celebration on Christmas Eve or Christmas morning.  Recall: "A source tells Us that Jolie organized the holiday get-together and that the kids' therapist — who supervises their visits with the Allied actor — was also there. "[Brad] gave them presents."  Earlier, a rep said, "Angie is not big on Christmas.  The kids have gifts, but she's teaching them not to be materialistic."  She let Brad be the one to hand the kids the "big thing" they each had been hoping to get for Christmas.  Angelina had brought the family forward to this point by helping Brad through "family therapy sessions" after he struggled for weeks to reconnect with the younger kids, while the older boys refused to see him again after walking out of one brief visit.

- "And I even went home and said to Brad, 'There's this one.'  And he said, 'Oh honey, that one's been around forever.'
I recall that this was, almost word for word, how she recounted it before, but it's revealing that she repeated even the "Oh honey" part.  She had been more circumspect earlier in the conversation when she avoided identifying him by name --  "And then, somebody saw it and said, they thought it wasn't so bad."  The "Oh honey" anecdote was less important to the story she was telling than how he encouraged her to move forward with  her script, but by then she had lowered her guard after chatting for an hour about her entire life.

- "Publicist, I never really got along with.  Had to have them for emergencies and it's never worked out."
Her reference to publicists (them - plural) seems to indicate she is referring to both hers and Brad's -- and she strongly disliked what they, as a team, did.  She was likely deeply unhappy with the way they ended up projecting an image of an ugly, acrimonious split.  It was an image Brad made repeated efforts to reject in GQStyle and noted "my partner in this agrees."  I thought the rep who was speaking for her was calmer and more truthful than the one who spoke for Brad, but both enjoyed talking too much and their public sparring fed fuel to the fire.  Their services were likely terminated not long after the family returned from Crested Butte, leaving the tabloids without the sources they had relied on for stories and quotes.  Now that the family is no longer in an "emergency" situation, the people still active on their team are largely their long-time reps led by his manager and her lawyer -- who are experienced in the game and tight-lipped.

She basically also confirmed that she does not have a manager.  That the one statement released by Geyer Kosinski after she filed didn't mean that he had been rehired.

(On having a kneeling/standing scene in all her 4 films)
 - "But I wonder if there's something to that.  That idea of something I've been always trying to find in life.   Like when you're up against something and you have to find what you stand for, and you have to fight for it.  And you have to, your will and your drive, and will you stay standing or will you fall.  Or will you accept that you're responsible and then will somebody step forward."

(liking imperfect heroes)
-  "I loved the idea of this story of somebody who is not perfect, and actually not special in any way other than his will and his spirit are strong.  And I think we need more of those."

(emerging stronger from dark times)
- "Me personally I believe things evolve....We've hit very, very dark times and we've come out stronger. And sometimes things can crystallize something and then you understand even clearer what you need to fight for and why, and what you need to hold on to and why.  And so I think that can be, and maybe must be, the way people have to look at dark times."

Even though she is not directly referencing Brad and the family above, given how her life over the past year and a half has been totally consumed by the family situation, they inevitably intruded into her thoughts.

One of the thoughts that threads prominently throughout is her will and desire to fight for what is important to her and what she holds dear.  Recall a few days after she filed: "A family member exclusively tells PEOPLE "Her family is broken and she is in agony. Her children are recovering from the events that brought about the filing of the divorce"  She had to care for both sides separately even as she had to fight and work hard to bring them back together, to heal her broken family.

The children -- innocent, impressionable and vulnerable -- were the ones she had to attend to first.  She was with them constantly, talking to and reassuring them, and sat with them in their sessions with the therapists who helped guide them in overcoming the trauma and helped explain how their father ended up behaving the way he did.

Looking after Brad was much, much more complicated.  She couldn't be physically with him, at least not openly, especially in the beginning when they were prohibited from any direct contact by the DCFS' child protection plan.  Brad was forced to live alone while he grappled with myriad debilitating emotions, had to deal with substance withdrawal, and face simultaneous DCFS and FBI investigations.  She knew he was in a fragile state, devastated by the filing, despondent at not being able to join her and the children, and alarmingly entertaining suicidal thoughts.  She was desperate to help him but could only do so stealthily, hiding from both the public and the DCFS, who had compelled her to file to safeguard the children's healing.

One of the ways she protected him was by shielding from the public the details of what truly transpired: why all the children ended up with severe trauma, and what led Maddox and Pax to spurn him and resist his efforts at reconciliation.  What we do know is that it was serious enough for the DCFS to put in place a protective order against him and restrict him to limited, monitored contact with the children. 

She said that she was "quite an emotional person, very empathetic" even with total strangers, and so with Brad, she quickly moved past being upset to empathizing with him.  She understood his difficulty in facing his substance addiction, and why he had trouble accepting and comprehending the therapists' decisions.  She understood how his frustration at his slow progress reconnecting with the children led him to flail about seeking a quick solution against the Custody Stipulation.  She knew it was his desire to do what was right and what was needed by the family, but that he sometimes lacked self-discipline, clear thinking, and will-power.

She had to fight to be strong for the whole family because they were all dependent on her to carry them through.

While Brad had confessed that the "weird" journey was "self-inflicted" due to "things I wasn't dealing with, I was boozing too much," and enumerated other shortcomings, she never pinned blame on him.  She never alluded to any problem even though he already admitted to having them.  She never spoke of the incident on the plane, the DCFS, or the children's trauma and recovery.  She always referred to their situation in nebulous terms: "the events that led to the filing", "things got difficult", "there was a heaviness" because of "something" that they were dealing with.  She was protecting him and also generously sharing the public burden of responsibility for it with him.   She nursed and guided him back to a healthier mindset, and gently encouraged him to follow and benefit from the therapeutic process.  She reassured him of her enduring love, that they would "weather the storm together no matter what" and turn it to the family's benefit by emerging "stronger and closer."  He acknowledged all that she did and showered her in turn with "a lot of" love and gratitude: "There’s still much beauty in the world and a lot of love. And a lot of love to be given."  And it shows.

"We are and forever will be a family. I am coping with finding a way through to make sure that this somehow makes us stronger and closer."...  " We will be stronger when we come out of this because that's what we're determined to do as a family."..."We care for each other and care about our family, and we are both working towards the same goal."

-  She spent over a year "being a Mom", "just to be with my kids,” because they "needed me home." She "couldn’t be at the final post (production for FTKMF). because of family issues. "

There is obviously no longer any need for her to be constantly at home wit the children.   She has been busy promoting FTKMF virtually nonstop since it debuted in Telluride in early September.  She went alone to Vancouver in mid-November while the kids presumably stayed behind in L.A.  Brad has been free since early November when Ad Astra wrapped.  She said she expects to start Maleficent 2 in January and it appears to be gearing up.*  As before, when she is working all day on a film, it will be Brad's turn to look after the kids. The family appears to have already achieved it's goal of reunification.  They even flew back together from Nice on a private plane in late June, retracing their steps from that fateful September 14, 2016 flight.  Recall she said that the DeMille was a big jump forward for them when they moved there in mid-June.  She said it was happy and light and they reportedly plan further extensive renovations in much the same way they (or mare specifically Brad) worked on Miraval.

Laura Wasser reminded Lance Spiegel last November 2016 that the reunification process was estimated to take from 6 months to a year -- but this was before Brad tried to muscle his way past the therapists.  How much Brad's ill-advised legal and other actions could have setback his securing favorable evaluations from the therapists and the custody evaluator is perhaps the outstanding question now.   Attempting to circumvent the Custody Stipulation and side-step the therapists almost surely carried serious consequences, but even his recent pick up of a joint may have had repercussions.  The Custody Stipulation includes a provision for weekly random drug and alcohol tests which could detect even a single use of pot, and it has not been legally lifted.


*Two weeks ago, Joaquim Rønning posted a photo taken in his brand new, still empty office at Walt Disney Studios with the note "New office - new adventure ✨💫✨",   and then just today (12/11), he posted a new note that he was on his way from L.A. to London.

Recall she told Baz Bamigboye in September:
'They like the idea of going to London, so we are looking at the possibility of maybe doing Maleficent 2, perhaps in January.  
They do like the idea of Mum doing something with action. They want Mum to get herself together, and do some kick-ass. It's been a while. My last action film was eight years ago,'
She told Feinberg on the topic of action movies: "I'm looking for one now, in fact, 'cause of this time in my life, I feel like I need to." She is actually looking at one as Maleficent will apparently be kicking-ass in the sequel.

-- Fussy

There was an instagram post by a blogger claiming that Brad was at Art Basel Miami, but there was no photo of him at the event.  He was seen out and about in Hollywood at about the same time as the post.


Brad Pitt took a ride through Hollywood on Thursday, Dec 7 in his luxurious BMW motorbike.

Thursday, December 7, 2017

by Stephen Galloway December 07, 2017, 6:00am PST

Six top filmmakers — also including Patty Jenkins, Denis Villeneuve, Angelina Jolie and Joe Wright — open up about choosing the right projects ("You don't want to end up in a bad marriage"), firing staff and what it feels like to direct a movie that bombs: "People think you move on, but you don't."

What if you could put a camera anywhere, at any time in history? What if there were no limits to what you could direct? "That would be suicide," says Guillermo del Toro, 53 (The Shape of Water), at THR's Nov. 12 Director Roundtable. "Limits are what give you freedom." Still, pushed, he admits he would love to film his grandmother, with whom he had a complicated relationship, to check his memory.
First-time director Greta Gerwig, 34 (Lady Bird), would shoot Socrates. "He had these dialogues with Diotima, a prostitute in ancient Greece — I would have loved to hear what those women had to say," she offers. Denis Villeneuve, 50 (Blade Runner 2049), would train his camera on Jesus. Patty Jenkins, 46 (Wonder Woman), would put hers in a high-security prison. And Joe Wright, 45 (Darkest Hour), would like to "see things through the eyes of an angel." But Angelina Jolie, 42 (First They Killed My Father), thinks far too much has already been captured on film — "from chemical attacks in Syria to the Rohingya being displaced" — without anything being done about it. "I see very little call to action," she says, with regret.
Of course, each of these directors, in his or her own way, sees film as a call to action, as they made intensely clear in their conversation with THR.

You're on a lifeboat with a Blu-ray player …
GUILLERMO DEL TORO We are going to do that? That's not fair!
What are you going to take with you to watch? Let's start with you, Guillermo.
DEL TORO Oh, why?
DENIS VILLENEUVE Because you are the cinephile of the group.
ANGELINA JOLIE Always, always.
DEL TORO It's so difficult for me to answer, because I will answer something completely non-prestigious. When I was a teenager, The Road Warrior [1981] completely destroyed me. It's the first time I noticed how the camera worked and moved, and it was a ballet, and I have never been the same. But I would probably change my mind halfway through the lifeboat journey, and I would go, "Where is Frankenstein [1931]?"
PATTY JENKINS Oh, my God! So many movies go through my head.
DEL TORO Come on. I did The Road Warrior.
JENKINS The weirdest one keeps coming into my mind. I Know Where I'm Going, [1945, directed by Michael] Powell and [Emeric] Pressburger. I love that movie. The design of it fascinates me because it's so romantic, but you never notice that it's becoming that romantic.

What did it teach you?
JENKINS The pocket of emotion of romance — the space where you get it and it's sincere and it's real and you just keep it from hitting the ground. You're right there in it. "Oh, my God, it's happening." It's what love is to me: It's when fear is mixed with desire. There's something so incredible about that moment.

Is love in real life ever what it is on film?
JENKINS I have theories about love. But fear and desire being equal is the thing. Film allows that to happen, but that's what it is in real life, too, although we always want to shut it down. Your desire is always to get the upper hand on [the fear], and as soon as you do, it's not so much love anymore. Film allows people to feel comfortable extending it longer.
GERWIG I am not choosing this on my boat, but Brief Encounter [1945]: She looks at him and says, "You looked like a little boy just then," and he looks at her and it's like, too late, they are already in love. Anyway — Singin' in the Rain [1952], I mean, if you are on a boat.

Do you try to imitate someone else's best film, or react against it?
DEL TORO Against.
JENKINS But why just one? It would be hard to pick just one that you are reacting against. You are always studying and paying homage to the people before you, and then turning it just a little bit yourself. That's the whole game.
JOE WRIGHT Personally, [my work is] probably a reaction against my father, as well as his work. He was a puppeteer.
DEL TORO Bet Freud would have something to say about that.
WRIGHT Exactly. He was a puppeteer and made very beautiful marionette shows. He founded the first purpose-built puppet theater in London in 1961, and one of the burdens of his career was that everyone saw puppetry as children's entertainment, and he considered it a fine art. So a lot of [my work] is a reaction against his perceived failure. Determination to do better, I guess.
VILLENEUVE I think I am reacting to when I was a very [young man]. Right out of film school, I made a short film. I was liked by an older filmmaker, Pierre Perrault, who was a master doing documentaries, and in the '60s he was part of a realistic film movement where they were the first ones to take the camera off the tripod and go with real people. They made a fantastic movie called Pour la suite du monde [For Those Who Will Follow, 1963] on a small island in Quebec, where they spent three years shooting fishermen. For some reason he liked me, and he was very sad that I was going to do fiction instead of documentary, because for him fiction was fake. All my life, I felt I owed him a lot, but I always felt I was the bad son who went to do fiction.

So would you choose his film for the lifeboat as a kind of penance?
VILLENEUVE I might. Or, to prepare me for death, it would be [1968's] 2001: A Space Odyssey. [This is] my favorite film of all time. It's the closest thing to a very existential journey. It would be good to prepare me for the passage if you are on a lifeboat without hope.
JOLIE It's a really interesting question because it's not like a favorite film, right? It's more the film that prepares you for death or helps you through solitude. I don't know if I would want to be watching movies. I love [Sidney Lumet's 1965 film] The Hill, and maybe it would help on the lifeboat to see how you manage surviving against all odds. But my real answer is: I don't know. Film does take you out of yourself, and I am somebody who can't listen to music because I get too influenced by it.
VILLENEUVE I am the same.
JOLIE I hear certain music, I will get dark or light, or I will start to feel …
DEL TORO You mean emotionally?
JOLIE Emotionally. So I tend to not regularly watch films, because I get very swayed by things. It affects me so.

Does directing movies affect you as well?
JOLIE Yes. In Cambodia, [the Pol Pot regime] is subject matter that has been debated. [But] this history is not known internationally and it made me upset when I was in that country. I have seen how it affects the people, and I have a son [Maddox, born in Cambodia] who deserves to know his history, and I want him to know what his birth parents went through. But did I feel I had the right to be the one doing that? It was hard every day to know if I was good enough or the right person to do it. Every day I woke up feeling, "Am I good enough?"
VILLENEUVE I had a similar experience but on a smaller scale, when I did a movie in the Middle East about the Lebanese Civil War [2010's Incendies]. But I felt welcome, talking about the story of other people, even if I was technically a tourist.

Patty, were you welcomed by Warner Bros. when you made Wonder Woman?
JENKINS I was. I mean, to get in there was a long story. I had first talked to them about it in 2005, and there were so many different chapters when they were and weren't going to make it. These tentpole movies, I feel it's more like dating than it is [like], "Hey, just buy my pitch." It's a serious commitment. I had almost done other big movies and had seen very little disagreements [derail a project]. So I was extremely circumspect when I came in to [talk about] doing Wonder Woman. I was really cautious. And when I first was meeting with them, they wanted to do something different, and I was like, "Ah, it's a shame. I don't think we are the right match." By the time they came back and realized they wanted to do something very similar to what I had been saying, it was a much different conversation. So I was extremely welcomed. I was very supported. And it's the biggest advice I ever give young filmmakers: Pick the right projects, because you don't want to end up in a bad marriage.
DEL TORO In 25 years, I have had one single bad experience: [Mimic] in 1997 at Miramax/Dimension. I learned that great word, which was "no," which is the same in every language, but I learned it. I agree completely with what you are saying: It's like adopting a baby tiger. A year later, that baby tiger eats your face.

What did you learn from directing your first film?
GERWIG I learned that I could do it. I don't think you quite know until you are on the other end of something like that. You take the leap and hope there is a parachute attached. But part of learning how to direct was being on film sets as an actor and, in particular, early films I made. I knew from having been on different films that when things came up that were problems or difficulties or something went awry, that was not a deviation from the path; that was the path.
DEL TORO There's a Buddhist saying: The obstacle is the path.
WRIGHT And always the obstacle gives you solutions that you find are far more interesting and far more crazy. The Steadicam shot in [2007's] Atonement [tracking the soldiers at Dunkirk in a single shot] was purely a result of the fact that we only had one day to shoot that scene, and the tide was going to come in and go out, so we really only had three hours of clear set. And this montage sequence was impossible to shoot in three hours, so the solution was to do it as a single take.

What was the biggest problem you had to solve on Blade Runner 2049, Denis?
VILLENEUVE Hmmm. What I'm going to say must stay around this table.

Don't worry, no one is listening.
VILLENEUVE How can I say it? Oh, boy. Let's say, doing this movie, I lost my virginity as a director. I thought before doing this movie that I love working with other people — the thing I love about filmmaking is to bring everybody around an idea and working together — and I thought, before, that I was able to bring everybody in the same direction. And I learned on Blade Runner why you have to fire someone. And that's a big, big thing.

Why did you have to fire someone?
VILLENEUVE At the end of the day, it's a matter of egos. You feel there is no reconciliation possible. And on a movie of a different scale, you can compensate. But on a movie like Blade Runner, where honestly I was dead at the end, [there's no] having to compensate.
GERWIG Before I directed, I had conversations with directors. Someone told me, "If you don't like a shot, turn off the lights, because it gives you a second to figure out what you don't like." And somebody told me, "Anyone is replaceable if they're hurting the movie."
JENKINS A big movie is a massive organism. And you have to be a leader, you have to be a manager on a whole other level. I had interesting massive-group dynamics, where I was like, "This whole group of people works together great. And now, all of a sudden, they are all complaining about each other. Where is the [problem]? Oh, it's you." And I had to get rid of that person. And I feel for you and all of that. But you are a destructive personality in the midst of hundreds and hundreds of people who need to go to work every day.
JOLIE When I started, I wanted everybody to feel this is the greatest experience. And then I realized, there can be days they don't like me. I would rather them not like me and be proud of the end result.
VILLENEUVE You are not there to make friends.
DEL TORO The other [thing] is when many of the members of the crew believe you are making something completely deranged. That is one thing as directors that we don't talk about, that we [must] have unwavering faith. We may have moments of darkness on the set, but to the crew, you have unwavering faith.

What was your worst day on Shape of Water?
DEL TORO I had a first day that I cannot think about. The second day was worse. In 65 days [of shooting], we had 64 really difficult days. There was a moment when Michael Shannon parks, stops, runs up the stairs. So Shannon parks the car, gets out — and the car stays on drive. It's an old car. The car continues going. Michael runs to try to stop the car. The car drags Michael in the middle of the rain. It hits the first post. Shower of sparks. Goes for the second post and it's coming straight for the video system. Everybody says, "Run!" Now, I never run for anything in my life! (Laughter.) And I go, "I am going to die." And the car stops at the second and final post, which is anchored to the ground. Everybody was horrified. And I say, "Now I can make my shot."
JOLIE So is that the one good day? (Laughter.)

Among your filmic heroes, who was different than you expected?
JOLIE Because I grew up in this business with my father, I early on realized how average everybody is. I grew up thinking there is nothing unbelievably special or unbelievably different about these people, except sometimes they think they are unbelievably special.
WRIGHT One thing that surprises me when I meet great actors is that they want direction.

What direction did you give Gary Oldman when he was playing Winston Churchill?
WRIGHT The rhythm of his character. I talk a lot about rhythm when I am directing. Film is more similar to music than any other art form. I am always almost conducting a scene so that they know where the rise is and where the falloff is, rather than talking about backstory and stuff like that, which I think is fairly useless. And although I am not keen on method actors, I am a bit of a method director in the sense that I have to feel [the characters'] emotions and I have to identify closely with the character. Really those characters are always an expression of myself. So I tried looking for the similarities. Finding out how Churchill and I are the same? Ridiculous! But for me, the film is about self-doubt. And I just had an experience of extreme self-doubt and thought I was going to leave the industry. I made a film called Pan [2015], and it lost about $100 million, and it was universally slighted by the critics, and I thought, "I don't understand this world anymore. And I don't know if I want to be a part of it."
DEL TORO People think that you move on, but if you are worth anything, you don't move on. You go into a deep, dark place.
WRIGHT Because our filmmaking is an expression of our soul. It's the closest to my essence.
JOLIE But it can also make you feel stronger. A film I did, By the Sea [2015], even when we were making it, people were saying, "Well, that's not going to be what people want." I [heard something negative] on CNN. I was like, "Oh …" Then the young punk in me had this weird moment of: "OK. You did your best, and you learned something, and it's not for everybody." It was like a talk with myself: "Don't become safe from this. If you become safe, you are never going to do anything worth anything."

Patty, have you ever lost your resolve?
JENKINS All the time. I never decided to be a director. I was at painting school, and my first love was music, and it finally came together when I took an experimental film course and I was like, "That's it." But I definitely had many moments where I was like, "Ugh, you could just restore antiques or something." There was a period of time, not long before I made Wonder Woman, when everything [didn't work]. I had made Monster [2003], then I had a movie not go, then I had my son — so I purposefully just did pilots for a while. And when I came back, the bottom had fallen out of the indie film market. The films that I had ready to go, nobody wanted to make. They didn't even want to read them. I was like, "I just want to leave Hollywood." It's ironic that I turned around and made Wonder Woman.

What's the most crucial quality a director needs?
WRIGHT A director has to think in film. And that's rare. It's not about thinking visually or dramatically; it's about seeing the world as film, as an audiovisual, time-based experience.
JENKINS You also have to have some responsibility to the realities of filmmaking. Doing such a huge movie, there is a huge insurance policy on you. You cannot ride a bike. I had a couple of moments where I was like, "Oh, my God, I am the only person who understands how 17,000 pieces are going to fit together."
DEL TORO But also being fearless. Because sometimes the most brilliant things are those that are closest to being ridiculous.

Felicity pointed out that this event was possibly held the day she was seen "outside a studio in Hollywood, Sunday, Oct. 12"  The person with his back to the camera could be Joe Wright.